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In 1919 the Spanish Flu finally hit Australia’s shores. The epidemic had originally started in 1918, borne around the world by soldiers returning from WWI. During the course of the outbreak it affected 500 million people and claimed more lives than those killed in the Great War. Also known as ‘pneumonic influenza’, it initially caused symptoms not unlike a typical influenza, but it would eventually cause patient’s lungs to fill with fluid and limit their breathing. Unlike most viruses, it primarily affected healthy young adults with pregnant women being the worst affected.

Jubilee Oval and the University of Adelaide Campus in 1936. Courtesy of University Archives

When the flu came to Australia each state tried to keep it contained, resorting to closing borders and ports and setting up quarantine camps to keep patients isolated from the healthy populations. After the initial outbreaks in New South Wales and then Victoria, South Australia was officially declared infected on the 8th of February. To help manage the influenza, and to keep those who were infected away from other patients, the Jubilee Exhibition Building was converted to an Isolation Hospital. Opened in 1887 the Exhibition Building was built to celebrate the colony’s 50th year as well as Queen Victoria’s Jubilee. After the exhibition, the building continued to be used for a variety of purposes including the Royal Adelaide Show, balls, concerts, exhibitions and events.

Due to the closing of the state borders, many holidaying South Australians found themselves stranded in Victoria.  On the 26th of February 1919, after an extended period of uncertainty, arrangements were finally made for non-infected South Australians to be transported by train from Melbourne to Adelaide. Their destination was the Jubilee Oval, picked as a prime location for a quarantine camp due to its close proximity to the Exhibition Hospital. Jubilee Oval had originally been created in 1895 as a sporting ground, and also hosted parts of the Royal Adelaide Show.

The train carriages were overseen by the Honourable E. A. Anstey, Commissioner of Crown Lands, and his deputy, along with two South Australian nurses who had been in Melbourne. This was to ensure that none of the passengers would attempt to escape the quarantine restrictions. All the passengers were required to sign a declaration before a Justice of the Peace, stating that they had not been exposed to infection prior to leaving Melbourne and that they had taken every precaution to ensure they were not carrying the virus. Breaching the bond would result in a £100 fine (nearly $8,000 today.)

In the lead up to the arrival of the trains, Jubilee Oval was being heavily stocked with supplies under the direction of the Central Board of Health. All up, the oval contained 100 military tents with room for another 500 people under the show annexes. The camp also included a telephone and post office. A letter from Dr Ramsay Smith stated:

“I would suggest no more than two persons in each [tent], unless they be children. The large Machinery Hall will accommodate easily any up to 572 people. Bedsteads, stretchers, mattresses, sheets, blankets, pillows, pillow slips, towels, soap are all provided for each passenger. Lighting, water supply, shower baths, and to some extent plunge baths are all available.”

Upon arrival, the passengers set about making themselves at home, setting up their beds and bedding with the appropriate sensibilities.

“The Machinery Hall, alias the South Australian Hotel, became the chief dormitory for unattached men, the live-stock show hall being set apart for unattached women.” Families, elderly ladies and people with children were set up in the tents.

While the outside world viewed the camp in a negative light, pitying the “detanues,” those on in the inside had a very different view. Referred to as “the Great Picnic” the residents set about making themselves as comfortable and entertained as possible. People on the outside sent parcels of tinned fruit, soup and “grapes by the hundredweight” as well as beds, stretchers, and tables.

“We remained ‘normal’ in temperature, temperament, humour, good fellowship, and desire to render such service as we were capable of to our neighbours. If there was one infectious thing in the camp it was the doctor’s smile.”

Committees were set up covering health, housing, sanitation, entertainments and presentations among others. Each day was filled with sports, games, concerts and poetry, as well as daily check-ups by Dr Alexander Krakowsky and the nurses.

“The daily routine was soon well established – bath breakfast, thermometer drill for women, committee meetings for the few, spraying of tents and removal of dust-bins, dinner at 12.30 or 1.30, cricket, thermometer drill for men, afternoon tea-parties, tea at 6 or 7, and the concert, or less public entertainment in the evening.”

The final night featured a concert and ceremony, with “speeches to Mr. Anstey, cheers for the doctor, prizes for the poets, and votes of thanks to Miss Cook, Miss Oldham, Mr Griffith and Mr. Heaton.”

The cover of ‘Normal’ Courtesy of the National Library of Australia

They were released on the 4th of March, though many lamented this after having such a wonderful time. After the release, a small group put together a booklet titled ‘Normal: souvenir of the quarantine camp, Jubilee Oval, Adelaide, Feb. 26th – Mar. 5th, 1919.’ The booklet featured several short essays recounting the experiences of those quarantined, along with many of the poems written and enjoyed. One essay recounted the feelings of returning to their everyday life.

“Alas! thought I, this is a nasty lonely world. I sighed for the comradeship of the Oval, for its familiar tents and familiar faces. Eagerly I walked to the nearest telephone box, to ask Dr Smith to let us all go back to our happy smiling world. My hand was on the knob of the box-door when a cheery voice cried out “Hello! Normal!” I swing round there was one of us. I don’t know his name, but the smile was of the true Oval brand and we gripped hand in the approved movie fashion. I left the telephone alone, and saved my twopence. The world became bright again. For now I know that here in this 440,000 people there may be 339,400 strangers. But at least wherever I go I shall always be sure that by chance I may hear the grand old word ring out. Life becomes an adventure, a great quest for any one of the other 566 smilers”.

At the time in Adelaide there were only 7 patients suffering from the virus. Comparatively in Victoria, influenza had claimed 16 lives, with over 1400 in hospitals.

While the quarantine camp was not revived, the Exhibition Isolation Hospital remained for the rest of the year. In June, the administration and control of the hospital was transferred from the Central Board of Health to the Adelaide Hospital, and in September part of the Old Exhibition Building was officially converted into a permanent isolation hospital with accommodation for 100 patients. Patients in the Jubilee Exhibition Hospital were transferred to the new wards, and the building was fumigated and returned to its original use as an exhibition space.

The Spanish Flu epidemic reportedly took 540 lives in South Australia. Approximately one third of Australia had been infected, with nearly 15,000 people dying to it in under a year.

Both the Oval and the Exhibition Building were taken over by the University of Adelaide in 1925, with the oval space now occupied by the Braggs, Mawson Labs, Benham, Ingkarni Wardli and adjoining buildings. The Exhibition Building was demolished in 1962 and replaced by the Taib Muhmund Court, the Napier Building and the Ligterwood Building.


Quotes taken from Normal: souvenir of the quarantine camp, Jubilee Oval, Adelaide, Feb. 26th – Mar. 5th, 1919. Camp Publication Committee [Adelaide, 1919]  http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-52793464

Photographs of the camps from: Papers of Hübbe and Caw families 1859-1988, Series 63, Box 6.

References:

“THE EPIDEMIC” The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA: 1889 – 1931) 26 February 1919: 7. Web. 28 Jun 2019 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5633535
“THE EPIDEMIC” The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA: 1889 – 1931) 28 February 1919: 7. Web. 28 Jun 2019 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5634235
“EXHIBITION ISOLATION HOSPITAL.” The Register (Adelaide, SA: 1901 – 1929) 31 May 1919: 8. Web. 28 Jun 2019 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article62193927
“INFLUENZA HOSPITAL” The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA: 1867 – 1922) 16 September 1919: 1 (5 O’CLOCK EDITION.). Web. 28 Jun 2019 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210600987
‘Centenary of Spanish flu pandemic in Australia’ The University of Sydney. 21 January 2019. https://sydney.edu.au/news-opinion/news/2019/01/21/centenary-of–spanish-flu–pandemic-in-australia.html
‘100 YEARS AFTER ‘SPANISH FLU’: IS THE WORLD READY FOR THE NEXT PANDEMIC?’ VaccinesToday October 24 2018. https://www.vaccinestoday.eu/stories/100-years-spanish-flu-world-ready-next-pandemic/

Written by Marie Larsen
July 2019

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Exhibition: Level 1, Barr Smith Library
24 June – 9 August 2019

In 2018, drawing on her experience as a History of Science student, intern Kate Corcoran conducted a survey of Rare Book holdings to identify items that would be useful both for teaching purposes and online displays for students. This display presents the results of her survey.

“The history of scientific knowledge and illustration has become an area of increasing interest for study in courses at University.

During my survey, I selected 100 texts according to three main categories. First, there were texts that were representative of the scientific fields of either natural history or medical science. These works were chosen because they were written during significant time periods of the development of these sciences and/or the author was a major figure in the history of this science. Secondly, there were books that were particularly special because they were unique to Australia or very rare with few copies throughout the world. Thirdly, texts that were especially useful for teaching, promoting or showcasing the history of science due to their spectacular illustrations were also selected.

My recommendations contain 20 texts with 10 on the subject of natural history and 10 on the subject of medicine.

The texts found in my survey include many scientific illustrations. Observational drawing is common in natural history and medical science. According to Gemma Anderson, an artist, scientific researcher and lecturer at the University of Exeter, these illustrations are personal and often more expressive than language. Illustrating necessitates a first-person view of the item being studied. It allows for the comparison between what is observed and what is already known. Drawings offer a unique perspective of objects that during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was not possible without the patience of illustration. Through these drawings, the reader can simultaneously observe and compare details of objects.

The scientific naming system still used currently called binominal nomenclature was established by taxonomist Carl Linnaeus and required a precise drawing practice. Linnaeus’ scientific drawings contain detailed information about the natural world. This information would not be presented so concisely if it was expressed in writing rather than illustration. Species cannot be defined properly and classified without knowing what they look like. Illustrations offer this clarity and help with scientific classification. Scientific drawings also provide scope for comparison as knowledge develops over time.”

Extracted from Kate Corcoran’s 2018 Arts Internship Report “Which items in the Barr Smith Library Rare Books & Special Collections are most useful for teaching, promoting and showcasing the history of science?”

 

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Isaac Barrow, mathematician and Christian theologian, was born to Thomas and Ann Barrow in London in 1630. He is believed to be the only child, surviving at least, of that marriage, with the death of his mother just four years later giving some credence to such reports.[1] Within two years of her passing his father remarried, sending Isaac to live with his grandfather in Cambridgeshire and starting a new family with his second wife, Katherine Oxinden.

Barrow’s education began at the Charterhouse School in London, one of the original ‘Great Nine’ English public schools. Literary accounts suggest that he was quick to quarrel,[2] and his father had supposedly been heard to say that if it pleased God to take any of his children he could best spare Isaac.[3] Perhaps he was simply bored, for his precociousness served him well when he later studied at Felsted. Under the brilliant, leading puritan Headmaster, Martin Holbeach, Barrow thrived, learning Greek, Hebrew, Latin and logic in preparation for University studies. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1643, earning his bachelor’s degree in 1648 and distinguishing himself in mathematics and classics. By 1652, he’d received an MA from the College and though he became a candidate for the Greek Professorship he travelled abroad instead, spending four years in Italy, France, Symrna and Constantinople.

When he returned to England in 1660 he was ordained in the Anglican Church and appointed Professor of Greek at Cambridge. Just two years later, he was also elected Professor of Geometry at Gresham College but resigned both positions upon his election as Cambridge’s Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. During his tenure as Lucasian Chair, Barrow delivered a series of twenty-three lectures on mathematics, Lectiones mathematicae, which he had hoped to publish. He sent the manuscripts to entrepreneur John Collins, in London, but the latter was unable to find a stationer willing to take on the project and Barrow’s work remained unpublished.[4] It was not until 1683, that the lectures made it to publication – the year that Collins died and six years after Barrow’s death. Sadly, the work did not sell well; perhaps, as Whiteside argues, it was due to the fact that the content contained very little that was original, being instead a compilation from the works of ancient philosophers such as Aristotle and Proclus.[5] Whitehead does, at least, concede that Barrow’s themes of the nature of mathematical truth; the complementarity of discrete and continuous magnitudes, and their Euclidean proportion and commensurability were handled “with a distinctive freshness and sparkling wit”.[6] Barrow followed these lectures with a further series on geometry. Published as Lectiones Geometricae in 1670, they were decidedly more technical. They showed, through his investigation of the generations of curves by motion and his recognition of the inverse relationship between integration and differentiation, just how close he came to articulating the fundamental theorem of calculus. His last lecture series, on optics, was delivered in c1670 and later republished as Lectiones opticae et geometricae (1674) with a few minor alternations. Arguably one of Barrow’s most important works, it was here that he made significant contributions to determining image location after reflection or refraction; opened new avenues for the study of astigmatism and caustics, and made new suggestions toward a theory of light and colours.[7]

Though an innovative mathematician and a well-respected teacher, Barrow relinquished his professorship in 1669 in Isaac Newton’s favour. Although Barrow was never Newton’s official tutor, the pair both attended Trinity College and the latter was known to attend Barrow’s lectures. It’s clear that Barrow appreciated the young student’s natural talent, and he encouraged his mathematical pursuits.[8] On resigning from the post, Barrow accepted a position as a royal chaplain in London and, a couple of years later, was made Master of Trinity College. His treatises on mathematics would still prove influential, but it was actually Barrow’s sermons that solidified his place as a literary master. Widely esteemed for his writings on behalf of the Church of England, including A treatise on the Pope’s supremacy: To which is added a discourse concerning the unity of the church and A Brief exposition on the creed, the Lord’s Prayer and Ten Commandments, Barrow’s texts were reprinted well into the 1800s.

Originally published posthumously in 1685, the Library’s copy of The usefulness of mathematical learning… is Rev. John Kirby’s 1734 translation of Barrow’s set of 23 mathematical lectures delivered at Cambridge between 1664-1666. It includes “The prefatory oration”, Barrow’s inaugural address given at the formal occasion of his appointment as Professor at the University. The lectures within focus on arithmetic and geometry; causality of mathematical demonstration; the nature and division of first principles; composition, divisibility, congruity and equality of magnitudes; homogeneity and heterogeneity of quantities, as well as discussions on the works of ancient philosophers and mathematicians such as Proclus and Euclid. The lectures are eloquently written and clearly reflect Barrow’s efforts to institutionalise and broaden the study of mathematics at Cambridge.

The usefulness of mathematical learning… has recently undergone conservation treatment.  To learn more about this process and to see some interesting “before” and “after” photographs, visit the condition report.

 

Footnotes:

[1] ‘Isaac Barrow’, Wikipedia:The free encyclopedia, 3 December 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Barrow, accessed online 11 Janaury 2019
[2] Feingold, Mordechai, ‘Isaac Barrow: English mathematician’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, undated, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Isaac-Barrow, accessed online 11 January 2018
[3] ‘Isaac Barrow’, Wikipedia:The free encyclopedia, 3 December 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Barrow, accessed online 11 Janaury 2019
[4] Whiteside, D. T., ‘Book reviews’, The British journal for the history of science, vol. 6, issue 1, June 1972, p. 87
[5] Whiteside, D. T., ‘Book reviews’, The British journal for the history of science, vol. 6, issue 1, June 1972, p. 87
[6] Whiteside, D. T., ‘Book reviews’, The British journal for the history of science, vol. 6, issue 1, June 1972, p. 87
[7] Feingold, Mordechai, , ‘Isaac Barrow: English mathematician’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, undated, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Isaac-Barrow, accessed online 11 January 2018
[8] Feingold, Mordechai, ‘Isaac Barrow: English mathematician’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, undated, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Isaac-Barrow, accessed online 11 January 2018

 

Lee Hayes
December 2018

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Exhibition: Level 1, Barr Smith Library 1 May – 15 June 2019 Curator: Cheryl Hoskin, Rare Books & Special Collections Librarian It was to be a great adventure – this skimming through ‘unknown skies’, over strange lands, and vast spaces of oceans. We were attempting something which had never before been done, so it is […]

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In September 1918 the Adelaide University Magazine was first published. The editorial of the first volume cited the need for a student magazine, to help provide a voice to the students, as well as to encourage a community that many felt the University missed out on due to the lack of residential colleges. It was […]

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Originally published as five short stories in the American edition of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. (1819-20), Old Christmas is Washington Irving’s later, illustrated version of the work, portraying the good old-fashioned customs of Christmas. The youngest of eleven children to Scottish parents William and Sara Irving, Washington was born in 1783 after […]

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Born in 1849, naturalist and geologist Richard Lydekker was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he earned second place in the first class ‘Natural Science Tripos’ of 1871.  Three years later he joined the Geological Survey of India, one of the oldest government organisations in the world responsible for conducting geological surveys and presenting earth […]

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The Magus, or Celestial Intelligencer is Francis Barrett’s compendium of occult knowledge and ceremonial magic.  An important 19th century grimoire, the book remains one of the rarest and most sought after primary sources for those interested in natural magic, magnetism and cabalism. About its author, we know very little. Most sources put Barrett’s date of […]

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Born in Yorkshire, England, on 5 May 1882, Douglas Mawson was the son of cloth merchant, Robert Ellis Mawson and his wife, Margaret Ann. Mawson’s family immigrated to Australia in 1884, settling at Rooty Hill, New South Wales. Douglas was a talented student and in 1902 graduated with a Bachelor of Engineering from the University […]

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Lorenz Heister was born at Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, in 1683 to a lumber and wine merchant, and his wife, also the daughter of a merchant.  He attended the Gymnasium there, whilst receiving private lessons in French and Italian, before going on to study medicine at the University of Giessen in 1702.  In 1703 he followed Georg […]

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